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Large truck crash avoidance.
Large truck and other commercial vehicle crash causation can be conceptualized by a risk-cause timeline and model. Different types of risk factors interact continuously to raise or lower crash risks, though crashes are usually precipitated by a discrete driver error or other failure. Enduring individual differences in driver risk are strong, with personality and related risk attitudes as a major source. Roadway characteristics (e.g., divided vs. undivided roads) are comparable to driver differences in their effects on risk. For motor carriers, a distinction can be made between risk reduction ( i.e., improving drivers and vehicles) and risk avoidance(reducing exposure to risk). Both can be effective strategies.